Thanks to the use of reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodeionization, Watersystem systems produce high quality water for various purposes.
Filtration on multimedia beds
Filtration is a process in which we remove suspended solids from water. This process occurs when water flows through a filtering material layer. Both raw water and water treated in other, upstream processes is filtered. Filtration is carried out with the use of appropriately selected filter materials.
A typical industrial use of multi-media bed filtration is raw water pre-treatment prior to the water softening and membrane treatment steps.
Softening (ion exchange)
Excessive water hardness is an undesirable phenomenon, both in production processes and its normal consumption. Calcium deposits are formed when hard water is used. To avoid operational problems, it becomes necessary to soften water.
Softeners are successfully used in heating systems of thermal/steam power plants, laundries and other processes where hard water causes operational problems (formation and deposition of limescale).
Nano- and ultrafiltration
Nanofiltration (NF) and ultrafiltration (UF) are membrane filtration technologies (similar to reverse osmosis). They are used in the treatment of potable water, process water, sewage and sea water. Ultrafiltration is a technology based on the physical screening out of particles of dissolved, colloidal and undissolved substances with the use of a suitable type of membrane. It is used to concentrate or clarify solutions, fractionate compounds, etc.
Reverse osmosis is a process that makes it possible to produce demineralized water in an environmentally safe manner without the use of aggressive chemicals. Sewage (concentrate) produced on a continuous basis is also not harmful to the environment. Thanks to this technology, it is possible to eliminate up to 99.5% of dissolved salts. Typical applications of reverse osmosis are found in turbine power plants, production of potable and irrigation water from seawater (desalination).
Water electrodeionization (EDI) is a modern, fully automated technology that allows to obtain demineralized water with very high quality parameters, which is more and more commonly required in the energy sector and many industries. Electrodeionization is typically used for final polishing of water treated in reverse osmosis, where it is necessary to maintain a very low water conductivity (less than 0,1 μS/cm).
Flocculation and coagulation
Coagulation is a process in which substances called polymers are added to water to collect undesirable particles/matter in the form of flocs which can then be removed, for example by sand filtration. Coagulation is used for removing organic matter and suspensions from raw water and other purposes.
Flocculation is the final stage of some types of coagulation, i.e. sediment coming out of colloids. It consists in the formation of chemical bonds between micelles, as a result of which they combine into large aggregates that visibly separate from colloidal solution, forming a precipitate or a cloudy suspension.
UV disinfection consists in the elimination of microorganisms from water through the use of short-wave ultraviolet light. This disinfection is usually used to treat swimming pool water (chloramine reduction and disinfection) and in the treatment of process water during storage or in-process circulation.
Chemical dosing is simply a method of feeding chemicals into water, to achieve the desired effect. Typical use cases include flocculation of organic substances, chlorine disinfection of swimming pool water and pH control.